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光缆布线基础知识及系统设计

guangxianzuoweigaodaikuan、gaoanquandeshujuchuanshujiezhibeiguangfanyingyongyugezhongdazhongxingwangluozhizhong。youyuxianlanheshebeizaojiaanggui,guangxiandaduozhibeiyongyuwangluozhugan,jiyingyongyuchuizhizhuganzixitonghejianzhuqunzixitongdexitongbuxian,shixianlouyuzhijianyijiloucengzhijiandelianjie,muqianyeyingyongyuduichuanshusulvheanquanxingyoujiaogaoyaoqiudeshuipingbuxianzixitong。

光缆布线基础知识及系统设计

 

yi、guangxian

1、光及其特性:

1)guangshiyizhongdiancibo

kejianguangbufenbozhangfanweishi:390~760nm(haoweimi)。dayu760nmbufenshihongwaiguang,xiaoyu390nmbufenshiziwaiguang。guangxianzhongyingyongdeshi:850,1300,1550sanzhong。

2)guangdezheshe,fanshehequanfanshe。

yinguangzaibutongwuzhizhongdechuanbosudushibutongde,suoyiguangcongyizhongwuzhishexianglingyizhongwuzhishi,zailiangzhongwuzhidejiaojiemianchuhuichanshengzheshehefanshe。erqie,zhesheguangdejiaoduhuisuirusheguangdejiaodubianhuaerbianhua。dangrusheguangdejiaodudadaohuochaoguomouyijiaodushi,zhesheguanghuixiaoshi,rusheguangquanbubeifanshehuilai,zheijiushiguangdequanfanshe。butongdewuzhiduixiangtongbozhangguangdezheshejiaodushibutongde(jibutongdewuzhiyoubutongdeguangzheshelv),xiangtongdewuzhiduibutongbozhangguangdezheshejiaoduyeshibutong。guangxiantongxunjiushijiyuyishangyuanlierxingchengde。

2、光纤结构及种类:

1)guangxianjiegou:

guangxianluoxianyibanfenweisanceng:zhongxingaozheshelvbolixin(xinjingyibanwei50huo62.5μm),zhongjianweidizheshelvguibolibaoceng(zhijingyibanwei125μm),zuiwaishijiaqiangyongdeshuzhituceng。

2)shuzhikongjing:

rushedaoguangxianduanmiandeguangbingbunengquanbubeiguangxiansuochuanshu,zhishizaimougejiaodufanweineiderusheguangcaikeyi。zheigejiaodujiuchengweiguangxiandeshuzhikongjing。guangxiandeshuzhikongjingdaxieduiyuguangxiandeduijieshiyoulide。butongchangjiashengchandeguangxiandeshuzhikongjingbutong(at&t??corning)。

3)guangxiandezhonglei:

a.anguangzaiguangxianzhongdechuanshumoshikefenwei:danmoguangxianheduomoguangxian。

duomoguangxian:zhongxinbolixinjiaocu(50huo62.5μm),kechuanduozhongmoshideguang。danqimojiansesanjiaoda,zheijiuxianzhilechuanshushuzixinhaodepinlv,erqiesuijulidezengjiahuigengjiayanzhong。liru:600mb/kmdeguangxianzai2kmshizezhiyou300mbdedaikuanle。yinci,duomoguangxianchuanshudejulijiubijiaojin,yibanzhiyoujigongli。

danmoguangxian:zhongxinbolixinjiaoxi(xinjingyibanwei9huo10μm),zhinengchuanyizhongmoshideguang。yinci,qimojiansesanhenxiao,shiyongyuyuanchengtongxun,danqisedusesanqizhuyaozuoyong,zheiyangdanmoguangxianduiguangyuandepukuanhewendingxingyoujiaogaodeyaoqiu,jipukuanyaozhai,wendingxingyaohao。

b.anzuijiachuanshupinlvchuangkoufen:changguixingdanmoguangxianhesesanweiyixingdanmoguangxian。

changguixing:guangxianshengchanchangjiajiangguangxianchuanshupinlvzuijiahuazaidanyibozhangdeguangshang,ru1300nm。

sesanweiyixing:guangxianshengchanzhangjiajiangguangxianchuanshupinlvzuijiahuazailianggebozhangdeguangshang,ru:1300nmhe1550nm。

c.anzheshelvfenbuqingkuangfen:tubianxinghejianbianxingguangxian。

tubianxing:guangxianzhongxinxindaobolibaocengdezheshelvshitubiande。qichengbendi,mojiansesangao。shiyongyuduantudisutongxun,ru:gongkong。dandanmoguangxianyouyumojiansesanhenxiao,suoyidanmoguangxiandoucaiyongtubianxing。

jianbianxingguangxian:guangxianzhongxinxindaobolibaocengdezheshelvshizhujianbianxiao,keshigaomoguanganzhengxianxingshichuanbo,zheinengjianshaomojiansesan,tigaoguangxiandaikuan,zengjiachuanshujuli,danchengbenjiaogao,xianzaideduomoguangxianduoweijianbianxingguangxian。

4)changyongguangxianguige:

danmo:8/125μm,9/125μm,10/125μm

duomo:50/125μm,ouzhoubiaozhun 62.5/125μm,meiguobiaozhun

gongye,yiliaohedisuwangluo:100/140μm,200/230μm

suliao:98/1000μm,yongyuqichekongzhi

3、光纤制造与衰减:

1)guangxianzhizao:

xianzaiguangxianzhizaofangfazhuyaoyou:guanneicvd(huaxueqixiangchenji)fa,bangneicvdfa,pcvd(denglizitihuaxueqixiangchenji)fahevad(zhouxiangqixiangchenji)fa。

2)guangxiandeshuaijian:

zaochengguangxianshuaijiandezhuyaoyinsuyou:benzheng,wanqu,jiya,zazhi,bujunyunheduijiedeng。

benzheng:shiguangxiandeguyousunhao,baokuo:ruilisanshe,guyouxishoudeng。

wanqu:guangxianwanqushibufenguangxianneideguanghuiyinsansheersunshidiao,zaochengdesunhao。

jiya:guangxianshoudaojiyashichanshengweixiaodewanquerzaochengdesunhao。

zazhi:guangxianneizazhixishouhesanshezaiguangxianzhongchuanbodeguang,zaochengdesunshi。

bujunyun:guangxiancailiaodezheshelvbujunyunzaochengdesunhao。

duijie:guangxianduijieshichanshengdesunhao,ru:butongzhou(danmoguangxiantongzhouduyaoqiuxiaoyu0.8μm),duanmianyuzhouxinbuchuizhi,duanmianbuping,duijiexinjingbupipeiherongjiezhiliangchadeng。

4、光纤的优点:

1)guangxiandetongpindaihenkuan.lilunkeda30yizhaohezi。

2)wuzhongjiduanzhang.jishidao100duogongli,tongxianzhiyoujibaimi。

3)bushoudiancichanghediancifushedeyingxiang。

4)zhongliangqing,tijixiao。liru:tong2wan1qianhualude900duishuangjiaoxian,qizhijingwei3yingcun,zhongliang8dun/km。ertongxunliangweiqishibeideguanglan,zhijingwei0.5yingcun,zhongliang450p/km。

5)guangxiantongxunbudaidian,shiyonganquankeyongyuyiran,yibaochangsuo。

6)shiyonghuanjingwendufanweikuan。

7)huaxuefushi,shiyongshoumingzhang。

二、光缆

1、光缆的制造:

guanglandezhizaoguochengyibanfenyixiajigeguocheng:

1)guangxiandeshaixuan:xuanzechuanshutexingyoulianghezhanglihegedeguangxian。

2)guangxianderanse:yingyongbiaozhundequansepulaibiaoshi,yaoqiugaowenbutuisebuqianyi。

3)ercijisu:xuanyonggaodanxingmoliang,dixianzhangxishudesuliaojisuchengyidingchicundeguanzi,jiangguangxiannarubingtianrufangchaofangshuideningjiao,zuihoucunfangjitian(bushaoyuliangtian)。

4)guanglanjiaohe:jiangshugenjisuhaodeguangxianyujiaqiangdanyuanjiaohezaiyiqi。

5)jiguanglanwaihutao:zaijiaohedeguanglanwaijiayicenghutao。

2、光缆的种类:

1)anfushefangshifenyou:zichengzhongjiakongguanglan,guandaoguanglan,kaizhuangdimaiguanglanhehaidiguanglan。

2)anguanglanjiegoufenyou:shuguanshiguanglan,cengjiaoshiguanglan,jinbaoshiguanglan,daishiguanglan,feijinshuguanglanhekefenzhiguanglan。

3)anyongtufenyou:zhangtutongxunyongguanglan、duantushiwaiguanglan、hunheguanglanhejianzhuwuneiyongguanglan。

3、光缆的施工:

duonianlai,zuoguanglanshigongshideaozhoukuaile8guanwangyiyouleyitaochengshudefangfahejingyan。

guanglandehuwaishigong:

jiaozhangjulideguanglanfushezuizhongyaodeshixuanzeyitiaoheshidelujing。zheilibuyidingzuiduandelujingjiushizuihaode,haiyaozhuyitudideshiyongquan,jiashedehuodimaidekenengxingdeng。

bixuyaoyouhenwanbeideshejiheshigongtuzhi,yibianshigonghejinhoujianchafangbiankekao。shigongzhongyaoshishizhuyibuyaoshiguanglanshoudaozhongyahuobeijianyingdewutizhashang。

guanglanzhuanwanshi,qizhuanwanbanjingyaodayuguanglanzishenzhijingde20bei。

1)huwaijiakongguanglanshigong:

a.diaoxiantuoguajiakongfangshi,zheizhongfangshijiandanbianyi,woguoyingyongzuiguangfan,danguagoujiagua、zhenglijiaofeishi。

b.diaoxianchanraoshijiakongfangshi,zheizhongfangshijiaowengu,weihugongzuoshao。danxuyaozhuanmendechanzhaji。

c.zichengzhongshijiakongfangshi,duixianganyaoqiugao,shigong、weihunanduda,zaojiagao,guoneimuqianhenshaocaiyong。

d.jiakongshi,guanglanyinshangxianganchuxujiadaoyinzhuangzhi,bingbimianguanglantuodi。guanglanqianyinshizhuyijianxiaomocali。meigeganshangyaoyuliuyiduanyongyushensuodeguanglan。

e.yaozhuyiguanglanaozhoukuaile8guanwangshuwutidekekaojiedi。tebieshizaishanqu、gaodianyadianwangquheduodiquyibanyaomeigongliyou3gejiedidian,shenzhixuanyongfeijinshuguanglan。

2)huwaiguandaoguanglanshigong:

a.shigongqianyingheduiguandaozhanyongqingkuang,qingxi、anfangsuliaoziguan,tongshifangruqianyinxian。

b.jisuanhaobufangzhangdu,yidingyaoyouzugoudeyuliuzhangdu。

c.yicibufangzhangdubuyaotaizhang(yiban2km),buxianshiyingcongzhongjiankaishixiangliangbianqianyin。

d.bulanqianyinliyibanbudayu120kg,erqieyingqianyinguanglandejiaqiangxinbufen,bingzuohaoguanglantoubudefangshuijiaqiangchuli。

e.guanglanyinruheyinchuchuxujiashunyinzhuangzhi,bukezhijietuodi。

f.guandaoguanglanyeyaozhuyikekaojiedi。

3)zhijiedimaiguanglandefushe:

a.zhimaiguanglangoushenduyaoanbiaozhunjinxingwajue,biaozhunjianxiabiao:

b.bunengwagoudedifangkeyijiakonghuozuankongyumaiguandaofushe。

c.goudiyingbaozhengpinghuanjiangu,xuyaoshikeyutianyibufenshazi、shuinihuozhichengwu。

d.fusheshikeyongrengonghuojixieqianyin,danyaozhuyidaoxiangherunhua。

e.fushewanchenghou,yingjinkuaihuitufugaibinghangshi。

4)jianzhuwuneiguanglandefushe:

a.chuizhifusheshi,yingtebiezhuyiguanglandechengzhongwenti,yibanmeiliangcengyaojiangguanglangudingyici。

b.guanglanchuanqianghuochuanloucengshi,yaojiadaihukoudebaohuyongsuliaoguan,bingqieyaoyongzurandetianchongwujiangguanzitianman。

c.zaijianzhuwuneiyekeyiyuxianfusheyidingliangdesuliaoguandao,daiyihouyaofusheguanglanshizaiyongqianyinhuozhenkongfabuguanglan。

4、光缆的选用:

guanglandexuanyongchulegenjuguangxianxinshuheguangxianzhongleiyiwai,haiyaogenjuguanglandeshiyonghuanjinglaixuanzeguanglandewaihutao。

1)huwaiyongguanglanzhimaishi,yixuanyongkaizhuangguanglan。jiakongshi,kexuanyongdailianggenhuoduogenjiaqiangjindeheisesuliaowaihutaodeguanglan。

2)jianzhuwuneiyongdeguanglanzaixuanyongshiyingzhuyiqizuran、duheyandetexing。yibanzaiguandaozhonghuoqiangzhitongfengchukexuanyongzurandanyouyandeleixing(plenum),baoludehuanjingzhongyingxuanyongzuran、wuduhewuyandeleixing(riser)。

3)louneichuizhibulanshi,kexuanyongcengjiaoshiguanglan(distributioncables);shuipingbuxianshi,kexuanyongkefenzhiguanglan(breakoutcables)。

4)chuanshujulizai2kmyineide,kexuanzeduomoguanglan,chaoguo2kmkeyongzhongjihuoxuanyongdanmoguanglan。

三、连接和检测

1、光缆的连接:

fangfazhuyaoyouyongjiuxinglianjie、yingjilianjie、huodonglianjie。

1)yongjiuxingguangxianlianjie(youjiaorerong):

zheizhonglianjieshiyongfangdiandefangfajiangliangenguangxiandelianjiedianronghuabinglianjiezaiyiqi。yibanyongzaizhangtujiexu、yongjiuhuobanyongjiugudinglianjie。qizhuyaotedianshilianjieshuaijianzaisuoyoudelianjiefangfazhongzuidi,dianxingzhiwei0.01~0.03db/dian。danlianjieshi,xuyaozhuanyongshebei(rongjieji)hezhuanyerenyuanjinxingcaozuo,erqielianjiedianyexuyaozhuanyongrongqibaohuqilai。

2)yingjilianjie(youjiao)lengrong:

yingjilianjiezhuyaoshiyongjixiehehuaxuedefangfa,jianglianggenguangxiangudingbingzhanjiezaiyiqi。zheizhongfangfadezhuyaotedianshilianjiexunsukekao,lianjiedianxingshuaijianwei0.1~0.3db/dian。danlianjiedianzhangqishiyonghuibuwending,shuaijianyehuidafuduzengjia,suoyizhinengduanshijianneiyingjiyong。

3)huodonglianjie:

huodonglianjieshiliyonggezhongguangxianlianjieqijian(chatouhechazuo),jiangzhandianyuzhandianhuozhandianyuguanglanlianjieqilaideyizhongfangfa。zheizhongfangfalinghuo、jiandan、fangbian、kekao,duoyongzaijianzhuwuneidejisuanjiwangluobuxianzhong。qidianxingshuaijianwei1db/jietou。

2、光纤检测:

guangxianjiancedezhuyaomudeshibaozhengxitonglianjiedezhiliang,jianshaoguzhangyinsuyijiguzhangshizhaochuguangxiandeguzhangdian。jiancefangfahenduo,zhuyaofenweirengongjianyicelianghejingmiyiqiceliang。

1)rengongjianyiceliang:

zheizhongfangfayibanyongyukuaisujianceguangxiandetongduanheshigongshiyonglaifenbiansuozuodeguangxian。tashiyongyigejianyiguangyuancongguangxiandeyiduandarukejianguang,conglingyiduanguanchanayigenfaguanglaishixian。zheizhongfangfasuiranjianbian,dantabunengdingliangceliangguangxiandeshuaijianheguangxiandeduandian。

2)jingmiyiqiceliang:

shiyongguanggonglvjihuoguangshiyufanshetushiyi(otdr)duiguangxianjinxingdingliangceliang,kecechuguangxiandeshuaijianhejietoudeshuaijian,shenzhikecechuguangxiandeduandianweizhi。zheizhongceliangkeyonglaidingliangfenxiguangxianwangluochuxianguzhangdeyuanyinheduiguangxianwangluochanpinjinxingpingjia。

四、光纤的应用及系统设计

1、光纤的应用:

renleishehuixianzaiyifazhandaolexinxishehui,shengyin、tuxiangheshujudengxinxidejiaoliuliangfeichangda。yiqiandetongxunshouduanyijingbunengmanzuxianzaideyaoqiu,erguangxiantongxunyiqixinxirongliangda、baomixinghao、zhongliangqingtijixiao、wuzhongjiduanjulizhangdengyoudiandedaoguangfanyingyong。qiyingyonglingyubianjitongxun、jiaotong、gongye、yiliao、jiaoyu、hangkonghangaozhoukuaile8guanwangjisuanjidengxingye,bingzhengzaixianggengguanggengshendecengcifazhan。guangjiguangxiandeyingyongzhengjirenleideshenghuodailaishenkedeyingxiangyubiange。

2、光纤网络系统设计:

guangxianxitongdeshejiyibanzunxunyixiabuzhou:

1)shouxiannongqingsuoyaoshejideshishenmeyangdewangluo,qixianzhuangruhe,weishenmeyaoyongguangxian。

2)genjushijiqingkuangxuanzeheshishiguangxianwangluoshebei、guanglan、tiaoxianjilianjieyongdeqitawupin。xuanyongshiyingyikeyongweijichu,ranhouzaiyijuxingneng、jiage、fuwu、chandihepinpailaiqueding。

3)ankehudeyaoqiuhewangluoleixingquedingxianludeluyou,binghuizhibuxiantu。

4)luxianjiaozhangshizexuyaohesuanxitongdeshuaijianyuliang,hesuankeanxiamiangongshijinxing:

shuaijianyuliang=fasheguanggonglv-jieshoulingmindu-xianlushuaijian-lianjieshuaijian(db)qizhongxianlushuaijian=guanglanzhangdu×danweishuaijian;

danweishuaijianyuguangxianzhiliangyouhendaguanxi,yibandanmowei0.4~0.5db/km;duomowei2~4db/km。

lianjieshuaijianbaokuorongjieshuaijianjietoushuaijian,rongjieshuaijianyurongjieshouduanherenyuandesuzhiyouguan,yibanrerongwei0.01~0.3db/dian;lengrong0.1~0.3db/dian;jietoushuaijianyujietoudezhiliangyouhendaguanxi,yibanwei1db/dian。xitongshuaijianyuliangyibanbushaoyu4db。

5)hesuanbuhegeshi,yingshiqingkuangxiugaisheji,ranhouzaihesuan。zheizhongqingkuangyoushikenenghuifanfujici。

3、设计实例:

mouxiaoyuanwangdegaizao:

genjuqiqingkuang,zaiyiyouxilanwangdeyibianshiyongyitaisankouzhongjiqi(shuangjiaoxian-guangxian-xilan),lingyibianshiyongyitaidaiguangxianzhugandeshuangjiaoxianhub。zhongjianyongjiakonghuodimaiyunkedeshuguanshi4xinshiwaiduomoguanglanzaijingguorongjieweidaisttoudeshineitiaoxian(yinshebeideguangxianjiekouweistxing)。

shuaijianhesuan:(yibanduomoshebeizai2kmfanweineibuyonghesuan,zheilizhizuogelizi)

fashegonglv:-16dbm

jieshoulingmindu:-29.5dbm

xianlushuaijian:1.5km×3.5db/km=5.25db

lianjieshuaijian:jietou2geshuaijianwei:2dian×1db/dian=2db

rongjielianggedianwei:2dian×0.07db/dian=0.14db

shuaijianyuliang=-16dbm-(-29.5dbm)-5.25db-0.14db-2db=6.11(db

jingguoshangmiandejisuan,keyikanchuxitongrongliangdayu4db,yishangxuanzekeyimanzuyaoqiu。

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